Patient Education

Research Articles
Just watching golf on television is enough to see how much stress and strain is put on the low back with each swing. But give it a try sometime and you will experience firsthand why low back pain is s ...more
Studying the causes and ways to avoid adjacent segment disease (ASD) of the cervical (neck) and lumbar (low back) spine has become a major focus of research these days. But with the ever changing surg ...more
For many years, X-rays have been used to diagnose and measure scoliosis (curvature of the spine). No matter how young or old the patient is or where the curve is located, this technique has continued ...more
In the late 1990s, the United States government made it easier for doctors to order opioids (narcotics) to help relieve pain not caused by cancer, called chronic non-cancer pain. As a result, the pres ...more
While only one out of 2,000 patients are diagnosed with cauda equina syndrome, it is diagnosed in one percent to 16 percent of patients who have lower back (lumbar) disk herniations (bulging or slippe ...more
Is low back pain (LBP) during pregnancy normal? If studies are right and half of all women have low back pain sometime during pregnancy, does that support the idea that this symptom is to be expected ...more
So, you or someone you know is planning on having a spinal fusion. Lots of thoughts go through your mind as you prepare for the big day. Meanwhile, your surgeon is also giving the procedure some prepl ...more
Surgeons removing synovial cysts from the spine have noticed some interesting things about these structures. Sometimes they are located quite a bit away from the joint they originate from. Sometimes t ...more
Surgery for degenerative disc disease has traditionally been discectomy (removal of the disc) and spinal fusion. But with the new total disc replacement procedure, more patients are opting for this ...more
Bone grafts, attaching bone to bone, are a frequently performed surgery in the United States. Many of them are autologous, where a piece of bone is taken from the person who is getting the bone graft ...more
Two orthopedic surgeons wrote an article on spinal stenosis that was published in 2004. In this article, these same two physicians revisit that topic and update information on causes of spinal stenosi ...more
What do we know about physical activity and low back pain? Is it a risk factor? Or a preventive aid? The authors of this study from The Netherlands suggest that too little or too much activity might b ...more
Piriformis syndrome: what is it? How do you get it? How do you know you have it? How do you get rid of it? What else do you need to know? That's the substance of this review article written by two wel ...more
Why do some people get back pain over and over while others recover without a single recurrence? That's the question these scientists asked in a study from Australia. They suspected that activity of t ...more
Surgeons at the Spine Institute (University Hospitals of Cleveland) are trying to find evidence to suggest bracing after spinal fusion for degenerative spinal disorders is advised. They would like to ...more
Sometimes having low back pain can make even the simplest tasks difficult. Take for example, coming to a standing position from sitting. A loss of muscle power can make the sit-to-stand task much hard ...more
New information from this study suggests that spondylolysis occurs more often than was once thought. Past estimates of its incidence relied on X-rays, which may not always show the defect. Updated rat ...more
According to this Japanese study, elite athletes who train for many years (from childhood on), are at risk for degenerative disc disease (DDD). Risk factors include participation in strenuous sports a ...more
There's a commonly held belief that once you've had an episode of low back pain (LBP), you are liable to have another. Studies estimate that the recurrence rate for LBP can be as high as 84 per cent. ...more
Back pain leading to disability is an everyday problem for far too many people. In fact, chronic low back pain is the number one cause of disability among men and the number two most common cause of d ...more
When a patient presents with pelvic pain and a history of trauma, the physician suspects pelvic instability. In this study, the use of X-rays taken with the patient standing on one leg called a single ...more
Scoliosis, a curvature of the spine occurs most often in older children and teenagers. But it can develop in older adults with serious complications. The cause is usually age-related degenerative chan ...more
Farming is a very physical job - from lifting heavy and awkward objects, pushing and pulling animals, equipment and objects, to working or riding with machinery that have strong vibrations. As well, t ...more
Which is better? Surgery or nonsurgical care for lumbar disc herniation (LDH)? Surely by now enough studies have been done to identify the preferred choice. But, in fact, a review of five of the large ...more
In the last 30 years, as the Baby Boomers became adults, the management of low back pain (LBP) has changed. Baby Boomers were born between 1946 and 1964. Parents of Baby Boomers were more likely to ex ...more
The authors of a Japanese study evaluated various factors that they thought could be associated with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Lumbar intervertebral discs degenerate with normal aging. ...more
The authors of the study performed a literature search to evaluate the role of specific core muscle strengthening with physiotherapy for low back pain, LBP, in golfers. They also evaluated the trunk f ...more
Physiotherapy is a common part of the treatment for chronic low back pain. Chronic back pain is defined as pain that lasts beyond the expected time for healing. This is usually after three months.
Medical experts know that an active rehab program after back surgery is helpful. Patients who have had a disc removed in the low back area tend to get better with active exercise. They often have less ...more
Low back injuries in athletes are often hard to treat. Medicine still doesn't have a good test to find out what's causing back pain. There is no one proven way to treat low back injuries in athletes. ...more
Do back patients who expect treatment to help them get better than those who don't? Many doctors, physiotherapists, and researchers think so. Scientists haven't been able to prove it yet. A new study ...more
People with chronic low back pain may see a physiotherapist for treatment. The therapist uses tests of movement and strength to find out what's wrong. Changing the position of the spine is one way to ...more
Electric heating pads and other heat treatments can soothe low back pain. However, they either get too cold in the wee hours of the morning, or they get so hot that they can burn the skin.
Heat can soothe aches and pains. However, in the case of low back pain, heat treatments have never been shown to provide lasting pain relief. This is true of heating pads and other short-term heat tre ...more
We use our "position sense" when we have to quickly adapt our body to changing or unexpected demands. It's the body's way of helping us stay upright when we run on uneven ground or jump into a floatin ...more
Walking is often recommended as good exercise for people recovering from low back pain (LBP). But doctors are not sure how LBP affects walking. This research tried to shed some light on the mechanics ...more
Everyone wants to get "back to normal" after a bout with back pain. Athletes are especially eager to return to play after back surgery. This study may give some help to professional and Olympic athlet ...more
Many workers in industrialized nations are now seated workers. More and more jobs involve doing tasks while sitting down. Back pain may be linked to seated postures. In particular, the flexed curve in ...more
Patients getting a spinal adjustment have come to expect a popping sound. But a study by a group of physiotherapists reports that this popping is not necessary for a successful treatment
For years studies have shown few therapies that work in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Doctors have tried "usual care," which means rest, then activity, along with pain relievers.
Are you confused by the terms "manual therapy," "soft tissue mobilization," or "spinal manipulative therapy?" Doctors Swenson and Haldeman have taken the time in this report to define and describe eac ...more
"Lie on your right side. Let your left arm roll back. Now gently press your legs down against my hand here. That’s good. Hold. Hold. Relax." This is what you might hear a physiotherapist say to ...more
What do you think would happen if you had back pain? Would you get faster pain relief with manipulative treatment, exercises, and a doctor visit? Or would you do better if you just had an hour with th ...more
What do low back pain and a head cold have in common? They are the top two reasons for visits to the doctor. There's also no known cure for either one. With that in mind, researchers continue to look ...more
Patients with low back pain (LBP) have one thing in common: they'd like to know what's causing the pain. Yet doctors are often at a loss to give answers to patients. We do know that two-thirds of all ...more
What happens to muscle strength and size after back fusion? How do the results compare with the muscles of back pain patients going through an exercise program? Scientists in Norway are sorting this a ...more
Imagine 100 billion dollars. This is the annual cost of back care in the United States. The high rate of repeat back pain and chronic disability accounts for much of this price tag.
If you stand on a flat surface with your feet fully supported, your ankles do the work of keeping your body centered over your feet. But if you stand on a surface that is smaller than your feet, then ...more
Exercise is still the best treatment for chronic low back pain. Studies show it's safe and doesn't increase your risk of future injury. In fact, it's likely that a regular exercise program prevents fu ...more
This is a follow-up study of 45 patients treated for chronic low back pain at the University of Iowa Spine Treatment Center. In the first study in 1992 patients were put in one of two groups. One grou ...more
Smoking is a risk factor for many diseases. It's also a risk factor for low back pain (LBP). This means if you smoke you're more likely to have LBP than someone who doesn't smoke. How do smokers with ...more
Low back pain (LBP) is a common problem in adults. As it turns out, adults are more likely to have back problems if they had back pain earlier in life. One in three teenagers (about 30 percent) will h ...more
Everyone agrees that staying active is usually the best way to treat acute low back pain (LBP). There's still a question about the use of physiotherapy, especially the timing of treatment. United Stat ...more
Many studies over the years have looked at the effect of exercise on low back pain (LBP). The results of these studies shows some benefit of general fitness exercise or strength training. In this stud ...more
Protecting the back from injury is a major focus of the physiotherapists (PT). In this study PTs from Canada take data from five abdominal and two back extensor muscles. The measurements are recorded ...more
Research shows exercise works well for patients with back pain. The question is: what kind of exercise is best? So far there's little proof that one type of exercise is better than another. This study ...more
This report gives an updated review of studies done using acupuncture. All patients included were at least 18 years old. Everyone had nonspecific low back pain.
Low back pain (LBP) is a common problem and one for which we don't have a "one-size-fits-all" treatment. In this study researchers at a center for work rehabilitation in Switzerland compared two treat ...more
Two facts are well-known about chronic low back pain (LBP). 1) Exercise helps. 2) People quit exercising after a while. In this study researchers from the University of Vienna in Austria look at the l ...more
Physiotherapists need ways to measure the success of treatment. If pain is used as a measure, how much improvement is enough to say the treatment worked? In this study therapists used the standard num ...more
New stick-on heat wraps have been shown to help decrease back pain. They also decrease muscle soreness. But do they improve function or decrease disability when worn during exercise? That's the focus ...more
Standing up and sitting down are important movements in our everyday lives. In this study, researchers show that hip and spine motion needed for these activities are affected by low back pain (LBP).
Physiotherapists treat low back pain (LBP) patients with a wide range of increased and decreased motion in the spine. Treatment choice is often based on the idea that a spine with too much motion (hyp ...more
Patients with mechanical low back pain (LBP) of unknown cause are often lumped together. Everyone gets the same treatment. But a group of physiotherapists suggest that patients with nonspecific LBP sh ...more
Increased abdominal fat is common in the aging adult. Along with it comes an increased risk of low back pain (LBP). According to the results of this study, isolated strength training may help slow the ...more
Researchers around the world are studying ways to treat chronic low back pain (LBP). Physiotherapy is often prescribed. The patient may be treated with manual therapy, which includes joint manipulatio ...more
In this study two physiotherapists (PTs) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison review the records of 133 patients treated for low back disorders. There were three goals:
There are many ways to treat low back pain. In this report, doctors from three large medical schools in the United States review the nonsurgical methods. Education, medication, activity and exercise a ...more
In this study, physiotherapists assess the benefit of neutral zone (NZ) exercises to prevent low back pain. Exercises to preserve the NZ of lumbar motion keep the natural low back curve during movemen ...more
In recent years researchers have discovered that fear-avoidance beliefs (FAB) are linked with chronic low back pain (LBP) and disability. FAB is observed in LBP patients who alter the way they move ou ...more
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other imaging studies are not recommended for nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Even so, the use of these tests continues when they aren’t needed. Often treat ...more
Spinal stabilization exercises have become a popular choice for treating nonspecific low back pain (LBP). But is there any value added from these exercises over the usual physiotherapy program?
Muscles regulate themselves during movement. Contraction and relaxation occur and change as the body moves and alters position. The multifidus, a deep muscle of the back is the focus of this study.
Low back pain (LBP) has become such a common problem that experts call it a national crisis. Most of the time, LBP goes away by itself. One proposed solution to this crisis is to ignore it. This conce ...more
What kind of physiotherapy (PT) program works best for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS)? That's the topic of this study by a group of PTs from around the United States. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of t ...more
It's a well-known fact that low back pain (LBP) occurs in people with no obvious problems seen on X-ray or MRI. And it's also true that people with degenerative changes seen on imaging studies often h ...more
In this study, researchers asked the question, Does minor trauma increase the risk of serious low back pain (LBP)? They report the answer is No. This was the case even for people with risk factors for ...more
Almost 800 adults participated in this study of low back pain (LBP). There were two goals:
In this study, patients with sciatica due to disc herniation were observed over a 10-year period of time. The goal of the study was to compare long-term outcomes between workers who received worker's ...more
After 50 years of intense research on the origins of back pain, we still don't know where it comes from. But thanks to Alf Nachemson, M.D. we know much more than we used to. Dr. Nachemson, who died in ...more
Many people in the Western world experience chronic back pain that affects their quality of life and ability to work. Although researchers have been trying to find the best treatment for chronic back ...more
Lower back pain afflicts many people. Some statistics claim that people have a 65 percent to 85 percent chance of developing lower back pain at some point in their life. In addition, among those who d ...more
Better imaging technology has shown us that the brain changes in response to chronic pain. Scientists suspect changes in the structure of both the spinal cord and the brain occur. In fact, there may e ...more
According to the results of two surveys done 10 years apart, chronic back pain is more common now than ever before. Eighteen per cent (18%) of U.S. workers report chronic pain while on the job.
There's an ongoing trend in medicine for evidence-based care. Instead of a feel-good-for-the-moment approach, there must be some proof that the treatment actually works.
Management, not treatment, is the new byword for patients with low back pain. Bed rest is no longer advised even for a day or two. Staying active is the number one piece of advice doctors now give the ...more
Walking is good exercise. It is often the main part of an exercise program for people with low back pain (LBP). But if it hurts to walk, back pain sufferers are less likely to follow through with the ...more
Back and neck pain are among the most common complaints in industrialized or developed countries. Statistics show that chances of having back pain within a one-year period is anywhere from 15 percent ...more
In this article, orthopedic surgeons from the New York University/Hospital for Joint Diseases present a review of osteoporosis. They outline who is most likely affected. They also discuss how to diagn ...more
Back and leg pain (sciatica) affect many Americans every year. Despite how common the disorder is, the best treatment for the problem still remains unknown. In this study, the results of two different ...more
In this study, researchers asked the question: what is it that causes disc degeneration the most? Is it what we do (occupational, physical activities)? Or is it how we are put together (size, weight, ...more
Physiotherapists (PTs) around the world have joined the search for a treatment method that can help patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). In this study, therapists from England compare the use of ...more
The search continues for a way to predict and prevent chronic low back pain (CLBP). One theory is that CLBP leads to physical deconditioning. Deconditioning means loss of strength, endurance, and aero ...more
It's been assumed for years that a decline in physical activity leads to deconditioning and that deconditioning can result in chronic low back pain (CLBP). But studies have not been able to prove this ...more
When doctors want to know whether or not a specific treatment is effective, they look at a collection of studies and compare the results. The most reliable data comes from a specific type of study cal ...more
Scoliosis or curvature of the spine is often thought of as a childhood problem. But more and more, older adults are experiencing this condition, too. Studies show that bone spurs and degenerative disc ...more
Over 20 years ago, a group of researchers led by T. G. Mayer, M.D. proposed a new approach to chronic low back pain (LBP). The focus moved away from bedrest to a more active treatment approach. The ne ...more
Orthopedic surgeons are aware of the hip-spine syndrome but no one has ever studied it. The hip-spine syndrome refers to low back pain (LBP) that occurs as a result of hip osteoarthritis (OA). This is ...more
Sciatica, also known as the lumbrosacral radicular syndrome (LRS) can be a painful and disabling problem. Pressure on the nerve as it leaves the spinal cord can lead to the back and leg pain common wi ...more
Back pain in older adults is a common problem. In fact, up to half of all adults over the age of 65 report some type of body pain. Pain of any kind can decrease function and threaten the independence ...more
n Finland, researchers have been conducting various studies on 300 pairs of male twins. Using the data collected, scientists can look for genetic causes of health-related issues.
Studies show that back pain sufferers go on to develop chronic pain and disability when fear-avoidance beliefs (FABs) are present. FAB refers to the idea that the patient believes activity will cause ...more
Heat is a common modality to use for low back pain (LBP). But how well does it work? How long does it last? If low-level heat reduces pain and promotes relaxation, how does it do this?
Advancing technology has provided a new research tool for rehab specialists. It's called rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI). This type of ultrasound can be used to assess muscle contraction and ...more
In this case report, physiotherapists measure the response of a single muscle to treatment using spinal manipulation for low back pain (LBP). The patient was a 33-year old man who had a long history o ...more
Studies show that psychosocial distress is linked with chronic low back pain (CLBP). People who are depressed, anxious, or stressed are at greater risk for CLBP. Fear, uncertainty, anger, and hostilit ...more
Many occupations and daily activities require prolonged sitting. This may be a cause of low back pain and sitting discomfort. The authors studied the use of a fixed lumbar support compared to a Contin ...more
For years, scientists have tried to figure out what treatment works best for patients with low back pain (LBP). Physiotherapists have joined that effort by studying various types of exercises that mig ...more
Core training or core stabilization exercises are very popular right now. Many people do these exercises after a back injury or for back pain. Others do them in hopes of preventing a back problem. Do ...more
Over the years, the treatment of acute low back pain (LBP) has changed from bed rest to activity. This advice may help prevent acute pain from becoming chronic pain.
Studies show over and over that staying active and exercising are the first steps to take in treating low back pain (LBP). But what kind of exercises work best? Are aerobic programs ideal? What about ...more
Studies show that a multidisciplinary approach is best for patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). Multidisciplinary involves physiotherapy, behavioral and psychologic counseling, and change in psy ...more
People with back pain don't always agree on what improvements suggest they are better. Is a 10 per cent decrease in pain enough to say, I'm better now? How much improvement in function suggests that t ...more
Chronic lower back pain is one of the most common chronic pains in Western society and results in high economic and social costs. Many studies have been done to assess and improve the quality of life ...more
Chronic low back pain, a common ailment among older adults, can result in depression, decreased appetite, difficulty sleeping, and decreased quality of life. To manage this pain, researchers say that ...more
The authors of this study worked in collaboration with the College of Physicians and the American Pain Society to develop evidence-based guidelines on low back pain, evaluating how well different ther ...more
Getting back to work after a low back injury can be a challenge for some patients. Work-related injuries can lead to fear of re-injury. Workers may think they cannot perform their job again without pa ...more
Spinal manipulation (SMT) to treat lower back pain (LBP) has been performed for generations, dating as far back as 2700 BC, it is thought. Since 1895, SMT has been primarily the domain of chiropractic ...more
There are many treatments and therapies available to help manage chronic lower back pain (CLBP), with some working for some patients and not for others. One treatment that is gaining popularity is mas ...more
Chronic lower back pain (CBP) is increasingly common in the Western world. With the commonality of the back pain comes an abundance of pain relief options - so many that it can be confusing and diffic ...more
The North American Spine Society has published a special issue of their journal on nonsurgical ways to treat chronic low back pain (CLBP). The goal was to bring us up-to-date on many types of treatmen ...more
The cost of health care is rising every year in the United States. And part of that economic burden is the management of chronic low back pain (CLBP). Efforts are being made to find out what kind of n ...more
Patients looking for nonoperative ways to treat chronic low back pain (CLBP) might want to consider cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). CBT is a way to change behavior by changing the way a patient th ...more
There are many different ways to treat chronic low back pain (LBP). Not all work equally well. Some seem to fit certain patients better than others. There is a wide range of symptoms and response to t ...more
So many people are affected by back pain that it has become the focus of intense study and research. In the last 10 years, a new appreciation has formed for the role of psychosocial issues in chronic ...more
Amid the many treatments available for the management of chronic lower back pain (CLBP), watchful waiting remains an approach for patients who do not have acute back pain nor injuries or disabilities ...more
Many risk factors appear to contribute to the development of chronic lower back pain (CLBP), including lifestyle factors, such as smoking, weight, and exercise. These modifiable risk factors are consi ...more
Acupuncture, a treatment that goes back over 2000 years, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment in the Western world, particularly for treatment of chronic lower back pain (CLBP). There are ...more
In 1969, the Swedish Back School began with a goal of helping patients learn about spinal anatomy and physiology, as well as ergonomics. These back schools are now used throughout the Western world to ...more
Scientists haven't been able to prescribe the perfect exercise program for everyone with low back pain (LBP). That may be because there is a wide range of exercises that can be done for the back. And ...more
The latest craze in exercise programs is core training, also known as core stabilization or lumbar stabilization. But what does it do? And does it really work? Doctors and physiotherapists at the Univ ...more
The authors reviewed available random controlled trials and controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of physiotherapy modalities in the treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP). These modal ...more
Researchers around the world are trying different forms and combinations of exercise and other treatment approaches to solve the problem of chronic low back pain (CLBP). This study was done in the Net ...more
Many research studies have been focused on patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). It's clear that exercise is the first treatment choice. But what kind of exercise? And should it be used alone or ...more
If you've got a herniated disc, should you have it removed? Does the location and type of herniation make a difference in how your back feels? These are the two questions studied and discussed in this ...more
Spondylolisthesis is a condition that usually affects the lumbar spine. It occurs when one of the vertebrae slips forward over the one below it. As the bone slips forward, the nearby tissues and nerve ...more
While many patients report the advantage or disadvantage of certain mattresses, studies have been inconclusive. The authors of the study compared three different types of mattresses in persons with ch ...more
Physiotherapists (PTs) are involved in an ongoing effort to find out what works best to treat nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Nonspecific refers to the fact that no known cause can be found for the p ...more
In this article, two family medicine physicians offer a prescription for conducting a quick (10-minute) exam of the low back. The target population is adults with acute low back pain (LBP). This infor ...more
Patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) may fear re-injury enough to avoid movement. This concept is called kinesiophobia (fear of movement). A constant cycle of pain, fear, disuse, and depression c ...more
Chronic low back pain (CLBP) can really decrease a person's quality of life. There are many ways to approach the treatment of CLBP. Back school is one method that's been around since the late 1960s.
Healthcare costs for patients with low back pain (LBP) have climbed into the billions of dollars each year. And that's the direct cost. It doesn't include the indirect cost due to loss of productivity ...more
Do you really have to do those exercises after a lumbar discectomy (disc removal)? According to this study, yes -- if you want to get back to work sooner, see your doctor less often, and feel better i ...more

© Skill Builders Rehabilitation | Website By MediaSuite Inc.